DATE EVENT SHORT NARRATIVE
0 - 200 First Settlement The first ancestors of the Hawaiian race arrive in Hawaiʻi Pae ʻAina
593 Birthing of Islands Time of Papahānaumoku and her mate Wākea: Hawaiʻi and Maui are born followed by the wahine Hoʻohōkūkalani
630 ʻAikapu Wākea creates the ʻaikapu ritually separating men and women from eating together and during a womanʻs menses. Observing the ʻaikapu allows Wākea the opportunity to mate with Hoʻohōkūkalani and begins the practice of nīʻaupio mating among the aliʻi
634 Hāloanaka is born Hāloa is born to Wākea and Hoʻohōkūkalani
634-828 The Piʻo chiefs Generation after generation of aliʻi nui are born to closely related parents, often siblings
828 Nanaʻulu and Ulu are born, descendents of Papa and Wākea Two major chiefly lines are established at this point, with the Nanaʻulu lineage associated with Oʻahu, Kauaʻi and Niʻihau and ʻUlu chiefs with Hawaiʻi and Maui islands
1194 Birth of Māweke Māweke: great ruling chief on Oʻahu and voyager. Māweke's descendents would rule Oʻahu virtually as a dynasty until the time of Kahekiliahumanu
1219 Birth of Moikeha Closing the age of great voyages between Hawaiʻi and Tahiti
1444 Birth of Māʻilikūkahi The institution of ahupuaʻa on Oʻahu
1492* Cristobal Colon crosses the Atlantic Christopher Columbus lands on the island of Hispaniola  discovering the New World for 15th century Europe
1519 Birth of Kukaniloko Ushers in  of series of female  Mōʻī on Oʻahu
1544 Birth of Kalanimauluaia  
1544 Birth of Kanehoalani  
1594 Birth of Kakuihewa Oʻahu
1619*  

Slavery introduced to the Colony of Virginia.

1636*   Harvard College founded.
1694 Birth of Kualii A powerful Oʻahu Aliʻi Nui who strengthened the authority of the Mōʻī and defended the island from invasion
1695 The Kumulipo is chanted Approximate birth year of Kalaninuiʻīamamao, son of Keawe and father of Kalaniōpuʻu. Birth chant traces his ancestry to the beginning of life
1713 Birth of Kahekili This descendent of the renown Maui chief Piʻilani would become the greatest warrior chief before Kamehameha
1753 Birth of Kamehameha I Earliest estimated year of his birth
1737 The Peace at Nāonealaʻa After beginning attacks on Māui and Molokaʻi, Alapaʻi Nui, Hawaiʻi Mōʻī from Kohala agrees to end his invasion of Oʻahu in a parley with Kauaʻi Mōʻī Peleiōholani
1754 Alapaʻi Nui dies on Hawaiʻi island Ends a period of political stability with long standing dynasties of ruling Mōʻī controlling the major islands
1759 Kalaniʻōpuʻu takes Kauwiki on Maui Begins a 20 year warfare between Hawaiʻi and Maui Aliʻi
1766 Kahekiliahumanu becomes Mōʻī of Maui The death of Kamehameha Nui leads to the ascent of his brother Kahekili. One of Kamehameha Nui's widows Nāmahana takes up with Hawaiʻi island chief Keʻeaumoku. The high chiefess Kaʻahumanu is born to them in 1768
1768-1771* Cook takes first “discovery” through south pacific  
1770*

Boston Massacre (March 5)

 
1773* Boston Tea Party (December 16)  
1775 Kahekili defeats Kalaniʻōpuʻu at Kalaeokaʻīlio. Kalaniʻōpuʻu loses his fort on Maui and begins preparation of a larger invasion. Kamehameha earns reputation as a fierce warrior
1776 Ahulau ka Piʻipiʻi i Kakanilua Kalaniʻōpuʻu's invasion of Maui is thoroughly defeated by Kahekiliʻs ambush and Kalaniʻopuʻu is forced to beg for his life
Jan. 20, 1778 Cook and Clerke anchor at Waimea  
1778 Keōpūolani is born  
Feb.14, 1779 Battle in Kealakekua. Kanaka and James Cook killed  
1780 Final Campaigns of Kalaniʻōpuʻu 1780—Kalani‘ōpu‘u, the ruler of the island of Hawai‘i, meets with chiefs in Waipi‘o Valley, telling them that, that after he dies: his oldest son, Kīwala‘ō will be the new ruler of Hawai‘i Island; his; and Kamehameha will also be given guardianship of the family’s feathered war god,. This action by Kamehameha causes controversy and leads to a rift between Kīwala‘ō Kauikeaouli [Kīwala‘ō Kauikeouli] and Kamehameha, who then returns to Kohala.

1782 Battle of Mokuʻōhai Kamehameha, aided by Hawaiʻi island Aliʻi nui defeats Kīwalaʻō and begins a decade long struggle for primacy on Hawaiʻi island with rival Mōʻī, Keawemaʻuhili and Keoua Kūʻahuʻula
1783* The Treaty of Paris (1783) ends the American Revolutionary War (September 3)

 
1783 Kahekili invades Oʻahu Kahekili dupes his nephew Kahahana, Mōʻī of Oʻahu into killing his Kahuna nui, opening the island to conquest
1785 Kimo Pō (Night of the assassins) Following the slaying of Kahahana, Oʻahu and some Maui Aliʻi rebel against Kahekili on Oʻahu. Kahekili puts down the rebellion and slaughters the Oʻahu chiefly families. Kahekili controls Maui, Molokaʻi and Oʻahu
1787* Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia  
1789 Hawai'i becomes a standard port of call By this date, traders and explorers from America and Europe are making the Hawaiian Islands a standard port of call for provisions and rest
1790 Kēpaniwai The Battle of Kepaniwai—Kamehameha Invades Maui with perhaps the largest invasion force (16,000) in history. Defeats Kalanikūpule at Iao valley.
1790 The Olowalu Massacre The Eleanora under the command of Simon Metcalf opens fire on unarmed Kanaka at Oluwalu, killing dozens. Metcalfʻs son Thomas is later murdered by Hawaiʻi chief  Kameʻeiamoku and his ship The Fair American  becomes a ship of war for Kamehameha
1791 Sandalwood trade begins “discovery” of Sandalwood in Hawaiʻi attributed to China Trader John Kendrick
1791* Bill of Rights ratified (see ratification timeline)  
1792 Birth of Ōpūkahaʻia Orphaned by the wars on Hawaiʻi island, he would eventually be responsible for bringing the ABCFM mission and literacy to Hawaiʻi
1794 Death of Kahekili Kamehameha apparently delayed his invasion of Oʻahu until the old chief had passed reinforcing the belief that Kahekili was his true parent
1795 Birth of David Malo 19th century convert, author, advisor to Kaʻahumanu and member of the first legislature, Malo led a petition drive from Lāhaina to demand that foreigners not be given land or government offices
1795 Battle of Nu'uanu Kamehameha invades Oʻahu, landing at Waikikī with more than 12,000 warriors
1797 Birth of Liholiho (Kamehameha II)  
1797 Kānāwai Mamalahoa Kamehamehas's oft-cited kauoha directing that people may not be molested in their homes or on their travels. Ends the reprisals against Kamehameha's opponents by his own warriors
1798* United States presidential election, 1789  
1804 Maʻi ʻōkuʻu Many thousands die in an epidemic, possibly cholera, which strikes Oʻahu and causes Kamehameha to call off an invasion of Kauaʻi
1804 Death of the Kuhina Nui Kamehameha's chief councilor Keʻeaumoku passes after advising Kamehameha to appoint Kaʻahumanu as his successor
1808 Birth of Konia and Paki Parents of Bernice Pauahi BIshop
1809 Ōpūkahaʻia leaves for New England  
1810 The Aupuni: Hawaiʻi islands unified under Kamehameha Kaumualiʻi agrees that Kauaʻi and Niʻihau will become Kamehameha's  upon the Kauaʻi mōʻīʻs death
Aug. 1813 Birth of Kauikeaouli (KIII) Although Kauikeaouli adopts St. Patrick's day of 1814 as his official birthday
1815 Birth of Samuel M. Kamakau  
1815 Birth of Nāhīʻenaʻena  
1818 Ōpūkahaʻia dies Literate in English, Hawaiian and Hebrew, he appropriates the latin alphabet for writing in Hawaiian and translates the book of Genesis from the Hebrew into Hawaiian
May 8, 1819 Death of Kamehameha I  
May 20, 1819 Liholiho proclaimed Mōʻī Kaʻahumanu begins to consolidate her influence among the high chiefs. Liholiho leaves for Kohala and stays with his cousin Kekuaokalani
Nov. 1819 ʻAinoa (Free eating) Liholiho is persuaded to leave Kekuaokalani, return to Kona and eat together with mother and Kaʻahumanu, breaking the millennium old ʻAikapu Tradition
Dec. 1819 The Battle of Kuamoʻo Kekuaokalani attacks the heirs of Kamehameha for breaking the ʻaikapu. But he is defeated and killed
Mar. 31, 1820 First missionaries arrive from Boston on the Thaddeus, docking at Kailua-Kona on the island of Hawai‘i where they begin congregational mission work.
Sep. 15, 1821 Charles Reed Bishop Born Later marries Pauahi
1823 Hale Paʻi opened Constructed in Honolulu near the Hale Pule (Mission House) and becomes the home of the Mission Press, which eventually prints millions of pages in the Hawaiian language.
The first book is published in 1823, entitled Na Himeni Hawaii (Hymns of Hawai‘i). (See The Mission Houses, Chapter 12.)

1824 The Passing of the Ruling family On a visit to the British monarch and Parliament In London Kamāmalu succumbs to measles. Liholiho dies a few days after. Keōpūolani dies in Lāhaina of an illness
1825 The Mōʻī Kauikeaouli is 9 years old, but Kaʻahumanu declares herself regent He aupuni palapala ko‘u; o ke kanaka pono ‘oia ko‘u kanaka.” (“Mine is the kingdom of education; the righteous man is my man.”)  Kauikeaouli’s motto
1826 Ruth Keʻelikōlani born  
1827 Kaʻahumanu baptized by the ABCFM—becomes Elizabeth Kaʻahumanu Presiding over a council of Aliʻi Nui between 1823 and 1829, Kaʻahumanu enacts a number of prohibitionary laws based on Protestant values
1827 The Bachelot Affair Marist missionary Father Bachelot is denied permission to establish a Catholic mission in Hawaiʻi
Dec. 11, 1830 Lot Kapuaiwa K5 born  
1830* Indian Removal Act  
1831 Lāhaināluna school established The opening of the seminary leads to an explosion in literacy among Kānaka
1832 Kaʻahumanu dies An epidemic of whooping cough in the Hawaiian Islands kills thousands of residents
1832* Department of Indian Affairs established  
1833 Kauikeaouli invested as Mōʻī For more than a year, the Mōʻī rejects the missionary leadership, and eventually attempts a Nīʻaupiʻo union with his sister Nāhīʻenaʻena
1834 Birth of Kapiʻolani  
1835 Birth of Leleiohōkū  
Jan. 31, 1835 Birth of William Charles Lunalilo Succeeds K5
1835 Kōloa Sugar Plantation is established Kōloa  Sugar Plantation is established by Missionary  William Ladd on  Kaua‘i, becoming the first successful exporter of sugar in the Aupuni
1836 Birth of Emma Kaleleonālani Rooke  
Sep. 2, 1838 Birth of Lydia Kamakaʻeha Liliʻuokalani Ruling Queen of Hawaiʻi
1838 Birth of Victoria Kamāmalu  
Jun. 7, 1839 Entire Bible translated and printed  
1839 Unequal Treaty with France French Commander Laplace extorts the Kingdom with a list of demands and threat to bombard Honolulu
1839 Death of Kīnaʻu Kekuaokalani attacks the heirs of Kamehameha for breaking the ʻaikapu. But he is defeated and killed
Oct. 8, 1840 Kumu Kānāwai Kamehameha III replaces the chiefly form of government with Hawai‘i’s first constitution, drafted in the Hawaiian language in 1839 and proclaimed (enacted) in 1840.  The new constitution is a departure from the traditional chiefly form of government
1840 KIII establishes a public schooling system Kekuaokalani attacks the heirs of Kamehameha for breaking the ʻaikapu. But he is defeated and killed
1841 Punahou and O'ahu College established for missionary children Hiram Bigham is the founder
1842 Makaʻāinana Petitions Beginning in 1842 thousands of Kanaka petition the King and Kūhina Nui not to allow foreigners to become subjects, occupy governent positions or own land
Apr. 1842 Diplomatic mission for recognition William Richards and Timoteo Haʻalilio are commissioned special envoys to Europe and the US
Feb.10, 1843 British Captain Paulet takes over the Kingdom Lord George Paulet of Britain arrives in the Hawaiian Islands on the frigate Carysfort. Using the threat of military might, Paulet demands a formal “provisional cession” of the Hawaiian Islands to Britain. King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) acquiesces to avoid bloodshed, and the British flag is raised in Honolulu
Jul. 31, 1843 The British withdraw The provisional cession of the Hawaiian Islands to Britain is rescinded by Admiral Richard Thomas (1777-1851) of Britain, sent by Queen Victoria to restore control of the Hawaiian Islands to King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli)
Nov. 28, 1843 Hawaii's independence recognized by England and France Great Britain and France issue a joint declaration, signed in London, formally recognizing the independence of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i (referred to at the time as the Sandwich Islands). (See Restoration Day, Chapter 12.)
Apr. 23, 1844 Birth of Sanford B. Dole from Boston on the Thaddeus, docking at Kailua-Kona on the island of Hawai‘i where they begin congregational mission work
1845 First Hawaiian/English dictionary published By Lahainaluna seminary press
Mar. 1846 Organic Acts of the Kingdom Divides the executive into cabinet ministries and creates the Commission to Quiet Land Titles
Jan. 27, 1848 Mahele The Mōʻī and Konohiki divide out their interests in the land as an integral step in creating private property in Hawaiʻi. This was a legal process
Dec. 12, 1850 First mormon missionaries arrive  
Jul. 1850 Kuleana Act The Kuleana Act is passed to encourage makaʻāinana to claim title to their house and farm lots just after legislation allowing foreigners to own and sell property results in the accelerating alienation of land
1852 New constitution King Kamehameha III (Kauikeaouli) adopts a new Hawaiian constitution, allowing foreigners to vote and be elected to the legislature. Also specifically designates males as voting subjects